The United States does not provide development assistance to Kuwait. The United States provides Kuwait with military and defence technical assistance from both foreign military sales and trade sources. U.S. soldiers support the Kuwaiti army in training, training, preparation and war fighting. Second, the DCAs focus on day-to-day interactions in the areas of nuclear defence, which generally include (1) mutual consultation and coordination of defence policy; (2) exercises, training and common education; (3) Coordination of peacekeeping operations; (4) defence-related research and development; (5) industrial cooperation in the field of defence; (6) the acquisition of weapons; and (7) security of classified information. The priority objective of the DIAC is therefore to promote substantial cooperation in these key areas. It is important that DCAs do not contain reciprocal defence obligations. Officials often insist on this fact. After a controversial DCA with China in 2007, Indonesia`s defence minister said: “We just want to improve our defence cooperation with China. We do not intend to sign a defence contract with China. Footnote 16 The right-hand panel in Figure 9 shows that for the sample of dyads that have signed at least one previous DCA, estimates for network variables move dramatically. The estimate for two paths remains positive, but it is now insignificant, while the estimated effect of the reciprocal degree is now clearly negative. This negative estimate, which is not expected by the theory, may be due to diplomatic restrictions; in other words, highly active countries may lack the means to negotiate new IJ DIAC.
On the other hand, the experience of high-level countries makes it easy to conclude agreements that are less likely to be replaced. Footnote 118 As I briefly show, the content of this estimate is in any case small. I also find a positive estimate for the average power, which, combined with the result for countries without a prior CAD, reinforces the hope that, once they have established trust through a first DCA, they will continue their cooperation with powerful partners. I get an unexpected negative estimate for the conformity of weapons in this equation; However, as the appendix shows, this result is sensitive to operationalization. Since high-level countries disclose valuable information about their reliability and the types of agreements they are willing to sign, cooperation with these partners, ceteris paribus, poses fewer problems of coordination and cooperation. This information mechanism produces a preferred observable binding effect. Estimates for reciprocal degree and two paths are positive and extremely accurate and provide a first support for H1 and H2, the main network assumptions. Dyads who share DCA links with the same third k are more likely to sign DCAs themselves. As the centrality of i and J in the DCA network increases mutually, their likelihood of signing a DCA increases accordingly.
The latter result suggests that cooperation most likely depends on military power and other covariates, provided that cooperation between mutually active countries where information is most important is the most important. To evaluate H5`s macrohistorical argument on the emergence of network flows, I separately calculated the marginal impact of network variables for the 1980-1989 and 1990-2010 periods. As shown in the right-hand tables in Figure 8, the first evolution of CAD in the 1980s had virtually no influence on networks; The models assessed separately show that, during this period, military power and bilateral trade were in fact the main determinants of defence cooperation. These results are consistent with the structural argument that network influence has only become important when traditional geopolitical concerns have dissiped, new threats have emerged and many states have needed bilateral defence partners.